Safeguarding of land and biodiversity

[GRI - 203-1], [GRI - 301-1], [GRI - 303-1], [GRI - 303-3], [GRI - 304-1], [GRI - 304-2], [GRI - 304-3], [GRI - 304-4], [GRI - 413-2],

Areas connected to conservation and the promotion of biodiversity have an increasingly important role in the environmental agenda of leading international institutions. These are set out in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (Agenda 2030) and, taking into account the European Green Deal, focus on on the main causes of biodiversity loss, including land use, habitat fragmentation, exploitation of natural resources and pollution. The European Union, which in 2020 published the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 (COM (2020) 380 final), aims to define binding targets to restore damaged ecosystems, improve the condition of habitats and protected species, reduce pollution and promote the “greening” of urban environments. Furthermore, Regulation 2020/852 (the “European Taxonomy”) lists the “Protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems” among its six key environmental objectives (see Communicating Sustainability: Methodological Note).


The importance of restoring nature in Europe is the Report published by the European Environmental Agency in 2023, which underlines the importance of measures to restore ecosystems with more eective management so as to preserve the benefits of more healthy nature, both in environmental and social terms, like the health of people, food security and eective climate action, and also from an economic perspective.

In this context, after the publication in 2020 of the European Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, the European Parliament in 2023, approved the Nature Restoration Law, which represents the first European legislation for the restoration of nature with legally binding objectives for Member States, including: the restoration and improvement of land and marine ecosystems of particular interest, the recovery of urban ecosystems and the natural re-connection of rivers and agricultural ecosystems. Specifically, the law sets the ambitious target of restoring 20% of degraded ecosystems by 2030, with Member States obliged to draw up a Restoration Plan by 2050, which includes quantifying the areas for recovery, the measures to achieve the goals and an implementation schedule. The commitments are aligned to the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework adopted during the fifteenth Conference of the Parties on Biological Diversity (COP15) in December 2022. During COP15, the 196 signatory countries were asked to update or formulate Biodiversity Strategies and National Plans.

In 2023, during the European Business & Nature Summit in Milan, more than 350 companies, financial institutions, governments and representatives of academia and civil society met to discuss how to respect the commitments under the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), also launching the European Business and Nature Charter. Finally, the final recommendations were published during the year by the Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures (TNFD), aimed at all organisations. These recommendations include general requirements for nature-related reporting and are broken down into four pillars governance, strategy, risk management and impact, metrics and targets-, in line with the Taskforce Recommendations on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD).

In accordance with European and international guidelines, after introducing into the Constitution the fundamental principles of “protecting the environment, biodiversity and ecosystems159, in 2023, Italy adopted the National Biodiversity Strategy to 2030, defining eight specific goals and focusing on building a consistent network of protected areas and on the restoration of ecosystems. To facilitate dialogue with Environmental Associations, a consultation forum was established under the Ministry of the Environment and Energy Security, which also includes the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) to ensure adequate technical and scientific support.

Acea Group Companies conduct activities that could potentially have impacts on biodiversity, such as the integrated cycle of waste, operation of power generation plants, management of water sources and treatment plants and the distribution of electricity. On this basis, Acea focuses closely on protecting the ecosystems in areas where it operates, as defined in the procedures of the Environmental Management Systems, which pursue continuous improvement with a view to reducing impacts, in the context of assessments for the planning and creation of plants, as well as management of operational areas. The Companies manage processes in compliance with the environmental authorisations issued to each plant, endeavouring to go beyond merely respecting legislation. The environmental provisions contained in the authorisations issued by the competent administrative authority are established on the basis of technical and environmental assessments considering the area surrounding each plant, to safeguard the flora and fauna present and protect the natural environment and the segment BAT or BEMPs160 where applicable. Specifically, the activities involved in the Integrated Water Service are aimed at the maintenance of optimal environmental conditions and sites where water is drawn, near to springs, are managed with attention to the conservation of existing ecosystems and, more generally, the preservation of the water flow.

Likewise, with treatment activities, the primary goal is that discharges, after appropriate treatment at Acea plants, comply with the limits established by regulations in the sector and do not therefore damage but rather protect the natural habitats of the receiving bodies of water. In implementation of this commitment, targets have been established for improved treatment eciency for certain Water Companies (see the paragraph Strategy and sustainability, The 2020-2024 Sustainability Plan and operational goals).

For hydroelectric power stations, Acea Produzione manages withdrawals and inputs of water in compliance with the Concessions issued by the competent authorities and with applicable regulations. Management Projects have been prepared for all reservoirs, with the relative impact studies for those in protected areas, with the goal of maintaining reservoir capacity and protecting the water quality of the reservoir and the receiving body of water, as well as guaranteeing the correct operation of discharge systems and dams (Legislative Decree 152/2006 and Ministerial Decree of 30/06/2004). The company provides for the protection of the habitats of all species present in order to mitigate the eect of the artificial barrier of the dams, which interferes with the natural migration of fish and the gradual sedimentation of the riverbed, with consequent changes in the native flora of the banks. Protection of the aforementioned basins ensures the living conditions of the “resident” and “migratory” birds, which use these sites for reproduction and feeding even during migration. Acea Ambiente manages atmospheric emissions from the waste-to-energy plants, in compliance with the operating authorisations issued by the competent authority and in accordance with the Air Quality Plan for the area in which the production activity is located (for more details, see the chapter on Emissions).

Generally, other plants in the energy sector, which generate electricity using fossil fuels and waste, are incompatible with protected areas and therefore cannot be located within them.

Acea has identified those of its sites/plants located in areas with a high level of biodiversity or Protected Natural Areas (EUAP) recognised nationally and sites of the Natura 2000 Network (SCIs, SCZs and SPAs)161 established at European level, by mapping of the infrastructure of the main operating companies (Acea Ato 2, Acea Ato 5, Gori, Gesesa, AdF, Acea Ambiente, Acea Produzione and Areti)162. Analysis conducted in 2020163 on over 23,000 sites/plants, including pylons but excluding underground electricity grids and pipelines, has shown that 2,290 sites, corresponding to approximately 10%, represent potential interference with biodiversity-rich areas. Plants of the Environment Segment, carrying out waste-processing activity, are not located in the aforesaid areas.

Considering, instead, only the sites/plants which could have a significant impact on biodiversity, the number drops to 1,145 and the total percentage to 5%.
Significant impacts have been estimated taking into consideration the design, implementation and management phases of plants, and therefore exclude sites/plants with minimal impacts, such as the Water Kiosks of Acea Ato 2, the secondary substations of Areti and the photovoltaic plants included considered as residential plants of Acea Produzione. The analyses conducted on the overhead electricity distribution network (1,472 km analysed) showed interference with protected areas for approximately 27%, corresponding to 404 km of network. The total number of natural areas intersected by sites/plants/ networks with a significant impact total 130 (55 EUAP, 61 SCIs/ SCZs and 14 SPAs)164 for a total area of 223.4 hectares.

Chart no. 49 – Acea sites/plants analysed, with potential impacts on biodiversity and protected areas intersected

Chart 49

Note: where SCIs/SCZs and SPAs coincide, they are only considered once under SCIs/SCZs.

These areas have animal and plant species habitats that are included in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature “Red List” as being under threat (in the “vulnerable”, “endangered” and “critically endangered” categories)165, i.e. at risk of extinction in the short or medium-term; these species therefore represent conservation priorities.

There are potentially 45 impacted species in the IUCN Red List: 3 plant species (1 critically endangered and 2 endangered) and 42 animal species, of which 7 are critically endangered, 9 are endangered and 26 are considered vulnerable (see Chart no. 50 for details).

Chart no. 50 – Number of species listed in the IUCN Red List with habitat in the protected areas intersected

Chart 50

With the aim of identifying the “priority” biodiversity-rich areas impacted by the sites/plants/electricity grids of the Group's main companies, i.e., the most fragile habitats and/or those most impacted by external factors, Acea developed an Environmental Fragility Index (EFI)166, a tool designed to assess the dierent habitats included and the portion of land occupied, the fragility of the habitat and the type of sites/plants present for each protected area impacted167.

This led to the identification of 12 biodiversity-rich zones considered as priority areas due to their increased vulnerability. In 8 of these — Parco regionale dei Monti Lattari, Dorsale dei Monti Lattari, Piana di S. Vittorino - Sorgenti del Peschiera, Riserva naturale Valle dell’Aniene, Fiume Farfa (medium-high course), Parco regionale Bacino Fiume Sarno, Monte Mai e Monte Monna, Riserva naturale Litorale Romano — sites/plants have potential impacts , while 4 may be aected by interference from electricity distribution networks (Parco Regionale Urbano Pineto, Castel Porziano — coastal area, Castel Porziano - Presidential Estate, Riserva naturale dell’Insugherata).


Awareness of potential interference enables optimisation of operations and the Companies have planned and/or implemented various actions to safeguard biodiversity, some in “priority” areas with a high level of biodiversity, as summarised in the info box.



Piana di S. Vittorino - Peschiera sources


River Farfa (medium-high course)

The two areas are aected by the Peschiera-Le Capore aqueduct system managed by Acea Ato 2 on which works are in progress to double the upper section of the aqueduct.
In the Farfa River area, the Company has engaged the Federico II University of Naples to conduct a technical-scientific study on the natural characteristics of the River, which include the collection site of the Le Capore spring. The study highlighted how the release of water downstream of the Le Capore springs has benefits on the ecosystem, supporting restoration of the natural river environment with its rich diversity of animal and plant species.

The River Farfa is also subject to an agreement between Acea Ato 2 and the Riserva Naturale Regionale Nazzano, Tevere-Farfa, with the aim of monitoring the evolution of the river ecosystem within the protected area.

River Sarno basin regional natural park

Gori is working on important works to resolve pollution of the river Sarno hydrographic basin through completion of the sewerage system and consequent collection and treatment. The project, carried out in synergy with various local players, also involves the Marevivo Onlus environmental association and will have significant impacts on recovery of the river ecosystem and, consequently on the entire Gulf of Naples.

Valle dell’Aniene natural reserve

Litorale Romano natural reserve

To check for any critical issues in the habitats surrounding the major treatment plants in Rome, Acea Ato 2 has conducted special monitoring of areas it is responsible for and the surroundings.
Previous studies have focused on the treatment plants at Roma Nord, Roma Sud, CoBIS, Ostia, Roma Est and, in 2023, the Fregene treatment plant, located in the Riserva Naturale Litorale Romano was assessed. The results achieved so far have demonstrated that the plants analysed have a positive eect on the ecosystem, constituting synanthropic biodiversity hotspots, i.e. places where species that coexist or are learning to coexist with humans, tending to form a rich and stable ecological community. Indeed, the specific environmental conditions and the low impact of man-made structures facilitates the presence of an extremely particular wildlife community. New monitoring involving the Roma Nord treatment plant is expected in 2024.

In the Riserva Naturale Litorale Romano protected area, Areti is pursuing a project to decommission and demolish electricity power lines and pylons, and has installed nests boxes on various substations to protect birdlife.

The initiatives launched by the Companies also involved other others, again of particular natural interest, although not classified as “priority” areas.
In order to limit the potential impacts of overhead infrastructure for the distribution of HV and MV electricity on birds, Areti employs risk mitigation initiatives in collaboration with the relevant authorities, making use of the best technological solutions for problems that are likely to occur in sensitive areas or areas of particular naturalistic value. Specifically, in compliance with the Memorandum of Understanding for restructuring the electricity grid, works continue to decommission and demolish overhead power lines within important protected areas, including Veio natural park, Marcigliana natural reserve and, south of Rome, Decima Malafede natural reserve, (as well as in the priority area of Litorale romano natural reserve). For details of the works performed in 2022, see the section Energy distribution in the chapter Energy Segment. The electricity distribution company and the Park Authority of Veio natural park signed a pledge of commitment under which the Company guarantees financial and operational support to launch a plan for monitoring birdlife by installing bird-deterrent devices on earth cables of overhead lines, composed of plastic spirals that make the cables more visible, significantly reducing the risk of bird collision. Furthermore, in 2022, Areti supported the Ornis Italica project to protect barn owls (see the box on “Nesting of Barn Owls on Areti Sites”), while Acea Ato 2 continued its work conducted in previous years to monitor the presence of peregrine falcons (included on the Red List under the “Least Concern” category) at the SCI-SCZ site of Villa Borghese and Villa Pamphili, in a specific area around the Acqua Vergine Springs. As always, a community of scholars, ornithologists and enthusiasts had the opportunity to follow the lives of the birds of prey that live among the Acqua Vergine springs, thanks to a webcam managed by Ornis Italica, an association of researchers promoting the project, which broadcasts images of a nest situated on Acea infrastructure ( The project was a great success in 2022, with the birth and development of peregrine falcon chicks.
Acea Ato 2 carried out monitoring to assess the hydrological system of the River Mignone, with the aim of promoting the sustainable management of water withdrawals and water resources and preserving the balance of natural ecosystems. This project was conducted in collaboration with the Park Authority of the Canale Monterano natural reserve in which the plant is located.
In 2022, AdF signed two river contracts for the Pecora and Pesa river basins, with the aim of developing proposals, formulated jointly by the various stakeholders, on regional and environmental development topics which will help to reduce impacts on the ecosystems of the two water basins.
In 2020, as a tool to monitor ecosystem quality in areas where its plants are located, Acea Ambiente developed the “UrBees” project, in collaboration with bee-keeping experts and the Sacro Cuore Catholic University, aimed at environmental monitoring by observing the behaviour of bees, as bioindicator insects, at the San Vittore del Lazio (FR) waste-to-energy plant. Biomonitoring is a tool for environmental control that allows the effects of pollution to be identified, observing living organisms and their biological parameters through the study of ecological changes due to the effects of one or more polluting substances present in the biosphere. Honeybees, in particular, are one of the best “sentinel species”. They support plant biodiversity and enable determination of qualitative and quantitative data regarding the health or lack thereof of a specific ecosystem, along with mapping of an area’s biodiversity. The observations made have highlighted the overall good health of the bees and the absence of instances of unexpected illnesses or depopulation. In 2022, the countless flights made by the bees produced 90 kg of honey from three different blends of botanical species: Honey 40 flowers, Honey 35 flowers and Honey 36 flowers. The analysis of the samples of honey produced revealed a total of 83 different species of plant, pointing towards high floral biodiversity.


Acea Ambiente launched the UrBees project in 2020, in collaboration with bee-keeping experts and the Sacro Cuore Catholic University with the aim of environmental monitoring by observing the behaviour of bees as bioindicator insects.

The project included the installation of three hives at the San Vittore del Lazio (FR) waste-to-energy plant to carry out environmental biomonitoring of the surrounding area. Biomonitoring is an innovative tool for environmental control that allows the eects of pollution to be identified, observing living organisms and their biological parameters through the study of ecological changes due to the eects of one or more polluting substances present in the biosphere. Bees were chosen as bioindicator insects because they make the hive a real environmental control unit. Bees replicate the same behaviour every day: they leave the hive to carry out reconnaissance flights, then return with the information on the environment they explored (in their hair and wings). In this context, honeybees, in particular, are one of the best “sentinel species”. They support plant biodiversity and enable determination of qualitative and quantitative data regarding the health or lack thereof of a

specific ecosystem, along with mapping of an area’s biodiversity. The observations made have highlighted the overall good health of the bees and the absence of instances of unexpected illnesses or depopulation. Specifically, the project has proved that dust from emission sources are absent from the bees’ wings.
In 2023, 3 honey samples were collected from the hives. These were analysed so as to identify the pollen composition and consequently accurately establish the honey’s botanical and geographical origins. The botanical species identified on the basis of the analysis were classified according to their greater or lesser presence in the samples analysed and compared in terms of their relative abundance.
The analyses on the honey samples found a total of 85 dierent species of plants, resulting in a floral biodiversity index168 of 0.937: a significantly high figure that reflects the extent and variety of botanical species around the waste-to-energy plant, contributing to the honeybees’ health.
During the year, the countless flights made by the bees produced 40 kg of honey from three dierent blends of botanical species: “41 flowers honey”, “34 flowers honey” and “46 flowers honey”.

LE api

During 2023, at certain Acea Ambiente sites, including the plant at Terni and the plant hub at Orvieto Ambiente, green areas were created with the planting of native tree species aimed at reducing the visual impact of installations and increasing the variety of plant and animal species in surrounding areas. In addition, once again at the Orvieto Ambiente plant, bee hives were installed in collaboration with the Sacro Cuore Catholic University. The outcome of the analysis will provide information to assess the plant biodiversity in the study area, thus obtaining data on an equivalent area of 7 km2, calculated as the average range of a bee’s flight of 1.5 km. Finally, a zoning project is underway within the plant hub, intended to create a natural garden.


Through the companies Acea Ato 2, Acea Ato 5, Gori and Gesesa, the Group mainly uses springs located in uncontaminated areas for water supply.

The supply system of the area managed by Acea Ato 2 comprises seven aqueduct systems, from 14 main sources, the distribution networks, and numerous smaller local sources, mainly wells, for a flow exceeding 21,000 litres/second. The drinking water aqueduct and distribution network extends for more than 15,800 km169. In addition to this priceless natural resource, following upgrading works on the Grottarossa drinking water plant, Lake Bracciano, and the river Tiber also represent water reserves, after appropriate treatment, to be used only in the event of water emergencies.


In accordance with that established by the criteria of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/CE), investigation of the availability, in quantitative terms, of potential groundwater resources and the possible impacts associated with the withdrawal of water resources from springs can be performed by monitoring certain variables through implementation of appropriate interpretive models. The main aspects to monitor can be identified as precipitation (rain and snow), evapotranspiration, surface run-o and infiltration into the soil in the area where the balance is assessed. For the refilling areas representative of the aquifers managed by Acea Ato 2, a continuous calculation methodology was implemented (from 1990 to today), for quantification of the components of the hydrological balance at a daily level. This method, re-proposed by Acea Ato 2 according to the national guidelines (Technical criteria for analysis of quantitative status and monitoring of groundwater stores ISPRA 157/2017), is considered a valid tool to monitor the quantity of groundwater stores.

Acea Ato 5 has continued a study on water availability on certain important sources. An analysis of precipitation and withdrawals has been done for the years 2017-2023. Specifically, a net reduction in precipitation was noted over the last six years, and consequently less refilling of supply sources; the model used made it possible to make forecasts on water availability. A report is prepared on a

periodic basis that, based on the patterns observed and comparing the availability scenarios of previous years, formulates hypotheses on water availability. The document is presented by the Company at the periodic meetings convened by the Permanent Observatory on the Use of Water Resources for the Lazio Region.

AdF constantly monitors the volume of water withdrawals using data provided continuously by remote-control gauges or data taken in the field by operating personnel and sent by tablet to the company management system. The data received from the two channels flow into a single system which is used to monitor the water districts to direct leak detection activities, and to monitor the water balance and the relative technical quality indicators (M1a and M1b). On the basis of this monitoring, three-monthly updating is also carried out on a document shared with the Tuscan Water Authority regarding possible water-emergency status, with indication of critical issues involving “drought” (lack of resources) and management or infrastructural actions planned to handle such issues. Monitoring dashboards created to enable the real time assessment of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of supply sources have proved particularly useful for monitoring the situation of the water crisis declared in summer 2022 in terms of resource use planning and for reporting and communication purposes.

In the territory that falls within Ato 5 Lazio Meridionale - Frosinone, Acea Ato 5 manages 80 sources, 75 of which are active, with 42 wells/well fields and 33 springs. In addition to these sources referred to above, the Company purchases/sells water through exchange points with other operators and Municipalities. From the sources, the water is transported to the Municipalities through a supply network, which follows a complex distribution network beginning with tanks and dividing elements before reaching users served, and totalling 6,212 km.

Gesesa, which operates in the Sannita District Area in the Campania Region, for the supply of drinking water, manages approximately 1,970 km of network, springs, primarily seasonal, and collects the majority of the water utilizing groundwater wells. There are three large collection systems: the Benevento plain, constituted of the well of Pezzapiana, a well located at the aquifers of Monte Taburno and a well located near to the Grassano spring.

AdF, which operates in Optimal Territorial Conference no. 6 “Ombrone”, manages the drinking water system through a network that stretches approximately 8,400 km. Almost 50% of the water is drawn from the Fiora springs located on the slopes of Monte

Amiata, while in the Siena area, the most significant systems are the Luco well field and the Vivo aqueduct, which takes water from the three springs of Amiata Ermicciolo, Ente and Burlana, located in the Vivo d’Orcia area.

The water system managed by Gori in the Sarnese Vesuviano territorial district, extending over approximately 5.270 km, has three main subsystems: Vesuviano, Monti Lattari and Ausino. The Vesuviano System is the most extensive of the three and arises from the functional integration of the Sarno aqueduct and the Vesuviano aqueduct, in turn interconnected with external elements of the Campano aqueduct, the West Campania aqueduct and the Serino aqueduct. This is responsible for supplying the majority of the OTA 3 municipalities. The Monti Lattari System serves the territory of the Sorrento Peninsula, the Island of Capri and the Stabiese plain. Finally, the Ausino System, represents the supply framework for the municipalities that occupy the eastern edge of the territory. The water drawn from endogenic sources represents approximately one third of the total, while the remainder originates from systems outside the OTA.

All of the Companies guarantee operations and the correct maintenance of collection infrastructure, water plants, supply systems and distribution networks and user meters. Extraordinary maintenance is also performed (renovation, upgrading and/or expansion of plants and networks).
In 2023, Acea Ato 2 continued the development of all interventions in collaboration with Acea Infrastructure, intended to secure and modernise the Peschiera aqueduct system, an essential strategic infrastructure: to ensure greater resilience of the procurement and supply system managed. The design-authorisation stage was completed for the 4 sub-projects170 relating to hydraulic works, identified in 2021, which will also be carried out with financing171 obtained as part of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PN- RR)172. Regarding the main intervention called “New upper section of the Peschiera Aqueduct”, which will also be implemented thanks to the additional funding173 provided by the 2023 Budget Law (Law 197/22), the authorisation process continued during the year174 (see Quality in the water area in the chapter Customers and the community).

Table no. 53 indicates the location of the sources falling within the zones subject to absolute protection175. This refers to “water stress areas”, as per the international definition of the World Resources Institute176. The water drawn is freshwater177, apart from 1.3% of the amount drawn by AdF, corresponding to approximately 0.76 million cubic metres, from marine sources. The total surface areas represented are in high water stress areas.

The data on withdrawals from sources by the Company is provided in the Environmental accounts Report.
To protect areas where springs are located, Acea Ato 2 also employs satellite monitoring. Surveillance is concentrated in the places showing – on the basis of the comparison between two images taken from space at a distance of several months – an unjustified or suspect morphological variation, such as new, unsurveyed constructions, earth movements, small landfills. The Company performs checks on site to identify any threats to water resources, ensuring precise monitoring. In fact, in 2023, thanks to the use of a satellite to perform change detection and additional inspections carried out along the supply and collection network, 62 violations were identified.

Table no. 53 – The principal sources under protection

sensitive area municipality area (m2) (*)


Peschiera springs

municipality of Cittaducale (Rieti, Lazio)


Le Capore springs

municipality of Frasso and Casaprota (Rieti, Lazio)


Acqua Marcia spring

municipalities of Agosta-Arsoli-Marano Equo (Rome)


Acquoria spring

municipality of Tivoli (Rome)


Pantano Borghese Acqua Felice springs

municipality of Zagarolo (Rome)


Simbrivio springs

municipality of Vallepietra (Rome)


Ceraso springs and wells (Simbrivio aqueduct)

municipality of Vallepietra (Rome)


Pertuso springs

municipality of Trevi – Filettino (Lazio)


Doganella springs

municipality of Rocca Priora (Rome)


Acqua Vergine springs

municipality of Rome


Torre Angela wells

municipality of Rome


Finocchio wells

municipality of Rome


Laurentina wells

municipality of Ardea


Pescarella wells

municipality of Ardea


Lake Bracciano

municipality of Rome


supply works on the Tevere River by the Grottarossa water treatment plant

municipality of Rome


supply works on the Mignone River by the Lasco del Falegname river crossing

municipality of Canale Monterano


other supply sources
(minor springs and other well fields)

various municipalities in OTA 2



Posta Fibreno wells

municipality of Posta Fibreno (Frosinone)


Tufano wells

municipality of Anagni (Frosinone)


Capofiume spring

municipality of Collepardo (Frosinone)


Madonna di Canneto spring

municipality of Settefrati (Frosinone)


Forma d’Aquino wells

municipality of Castrocielo (Frosinone)


Carpello wells

municipality of Campoli Appennino (Frosinone)


Mola dei Frati wells

municipality of Frosinone



18 wells

municipalities of Benevento, Telese Terme, Castelpagano, Vitulano, Melizzano, Sant’Agata de’ Goti, Cautano


Ciesco spring

Castelpoto 307

Gradola spring

Tocco Caudio 707

Monticelli spring

Castelpagano 358

Pietrafitta and Ruggiero spring

Torrecuso 2,242

San Vito spring

Frasso Telesino 249

Voneventa spring

Molinara 516


Vado spring

municipality of Bracigliano (Salerno)


Forma spring

municipality of Gragnano (Naples)


Imbuto spring

municipality of Gragnano (Naples)

(*) sorgente S.M. Lavorate

municipality of Nocera Inferiore (Salerno)


S.M. La Foce spring and well field

municipality of Sarno (Salerno)


Fontana Grande source

municipality of Castellammare di Stabia (Naples)


centres of Murata, Pugliana, Casaliciello, Santa Lucia and Tartaglia

municipalities of Cercola, Ercolano, Pollena Trocchia, Roccarainola and San Giorgio a Cremano (Naples)


centre of Monte Taccaro and Angri well field

municipality of Angri (Salerno)


well field of Suppezza, Gragnano, San Mauro Montalbino, Mercato Palazzo and Santa Lucia

municipalities of Castellammare di Stabia, Gragnano, Nocera Inferiore and Sarno (Salerno)


wells of Traiano, Stromboli-Vesuvio and Petraro

municipalities of Castel San Giorgio, Mercato San Severino and Nocera Superiore (Salerno)


21 wells in the province of Salerno

municipalities of Bracigliano, Castel San Giorgio, Corbara, Fisciano, Mercato San Severino, Nocera Inferiore, Nocera Superiore, Pagani and Siano (Salerno)


4 wells in the province of Naples

municipalities of Castellammare di Stabia, Palma Campania, Roccarainol and San Giorgio a Cremano (Naples)



Spring of Galleria Alta – Galleria Bassa – Fonte Carolina

municipality of Santa Fiora (Grosseto)


Ermicciolo Spring

municipality of Castiglione d’Orcia (Siena)


Arbure Spring

municipality of Castel del Piano (Grosseto)


Ente Spring

municipality of Arcidosso (Grosseto)


Burlana Spring

municipality of Seggiano (Grosseto)


Luco well field

municipality of Sovicille (Siena)


(*) The surface area data is estimated.

159 The Constitutional law also regulates the methods and types of protections for wildlife and specifies that private economic activity may not occur in a way that harms human health and the environment.
160 BATs (Best Available Techniques) refer to the best technical, management and control solutions able to guarantee a high level of environmental protection, BEMPs refer to Best Environmental Management Practices.
161 The Protected Natural Areas (EUAP) at national level are those areas recognised officially by the State pursuant to Framework Law 394/91. The Natura 2000 Network, established pursuant to “Habitat” Directive 92/43/EEC, is the main policy instrument of the European Union for the conservation of biodiversity. It is composed of Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) which are then designated as Special Conservation Zones (SCZs) and also includes the Special Protection Areas (SPAs) established by “Birds” Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds. The areas composing the Natura 2000 network are not reserves where human activities are excluded: the Directives intend to guarantee the protection of nature whilst also taking “account of economic, social and cultural requirements and regional and local characteristics”.
162 Areas were mapped using QGIS, an open-source GIS application that enables viewing, organisation, analysis and presentation of spatial data, processing each layer of the sites/ plants belonging to the Companies.
163 The analyses are based on infrastructure data of the main Group companies as at 2020. As of 2023, no significant changes had occurred.
164 Where SCIs/SCZs and SPAs coincide, the areas are counted once amongst SCIs/SCZs.
165 There are 11 risk categories, from Extinct (EX), applied to species for which there is definitive evidence that the last individual example has died, and Extinct in the Wild (EW), assigned to species for which there are no longer natural populations but only individuals in captivity, through to the category Least Concern (LC), applied for species that are not at risk of extinction in the short or medium term. Between the categories of Extinct and Least Concern, there are the threatened categories, which identify species at progressive risk of extinction in the short or medium term: Vulnerable (VU, Vulnerable), Endangered (EN, Endangered) and Critically endangered (CR, Critically Endangered).
166 The EFI is defined based on data provided by the Carta della Natura, a national IT system created by ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research), which is a cartographic and evaluation tool used to identify the distribution of Italian ecosystems across the country and analyse them based on their current state, considering physical, biotic and human factors.
167 For preparation of the EFI, the initial step was calculation of the relationship between the area of each habitat and that of the protected area containing it, generating a value for the portion of the protected site occupied by each habitat. This value was then multiplied by the fragility of the habitat as defined by ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research). Following this, all of the environmental fragility values of the habitats present in each protected area were added together. Having defined the EFI for each protected area intersected, this information was then cross-referenced with the individual Group plants with significant impacts located in the protected areas (plants identified as sites with potential impacts, from “low-medium to “high”). Finally, to identify the “priority” areas with high levels of biodiversity, the IFA was multiplied by the area intersected by the plants. The higher the value for the index, the higher the “priority” of the area.
168 The floral biodiversity index for UrBees considers the presence of abundant botanical species and the influence of rarer botanical species in a study area of 7km2, defined as the average range of a bee’s flight (1.5km). They are designated at a number between 0 and 1. The closer to 1, the more balanced the biodiversity in the area.
169 The figure includes amounts that have not yet been georeferenced.
170 These are the "New Marcio Aqueduct - Lot I", the "Raddoppio VIII Syphon - Casa Valeria Section - Ripoli Tunnel Exit - Phase I", the "Ottavia - Trionfale Supply System" and the "Monte Castellone - Colle Sant’Angelo (Valmontone) Pipeline".
171 Equalling approx. € 244 million.
172 According to Ministerial Decree 517/21 and the Decree of the State General Accounting Oce no. 160/22 (provision for launch of works that cannot be postponed).
173 Equalling approx. € 700 million.
174 On the basis of the opinion of the authority responsible for overseeing public works expressed at the meeting on 14/10/2020 (no.46/2020) and pursuanttoart.44,paragraph 1-bis of Law 108/21.
175 The areas of absolute protection are the areas immediately surrounding the catchments or offsprings, as defined in Legislative Decree no. 152/2006.
176 The check as to whether the sources were located in waterstress areas was carried out using Aqueduct, a recognised to old eveloped by the World Resources Institute (WRI).
177 Water with total dissolved solids à 1,000 mg/l.
178 Compared to the previous version of the document, the data on fully protected areas have been restated following the progressive conclusion of ongoing studies to outline the protected areas.